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Guns & Ammo Network


Demystifying +P

by Dan C. Johnson   |  September 24th, 2010 14

The inside scoop on +P

Most shooters know the “P” in the +P designation on a cartridge headstamp stands for pressure and indicates that the cartridge is loaded to higher chamber pressures and thus higher velocities. But many are confused as to exactly how much pressure is added and how safe these high-performance loads are. I believe this confusion is contributed to by people in the industry, some by firearms companies that understandably wish to err on the side of caution in our litigious society and some by small ammunition manufacturers looking for an edge in a highly competitive market.

Plus-P loads can, in some cases, boost the velocity of short-barreled .38 handguns enough to ensure reliable expansion. However, they do result in added stress on a firearm.

The +P designation came about for a very simple reason. As advancements were made in the quality and strength of both firearms and cartridge cases it was determined that some of the older rounds were capable of operating safely at higher chamber pressures in modern firearms than those originally established. Since firearms–and cases, for that matter–are durable goods that last for decades, even centuries, it was not feasible to simply increase the standard pressure specifications for these cartridges. There are too many old firearms around that could not handle the increase safely. So SAAMI (Sporting Arms and Ammunition Manufacturers’ Institute) uses the +P designation to separate the new pressure limit for these old cartridges from the old lower standard.

It is important to understand that SAAMI is the principle organization in the United States actively engaged in the development and promulgation of product standards for firearms and ammunition. Ammo specifications are not overseen by the Consumer Product Safety Commission or any other branch of government. Consumers should be aware that only manufacturers that are members of SAAMI are bound by the Institute’s guidelines.

All the major American ammo manufacturers are SAAMI members, and most smaller outfits also abide by SAAMI guidelines, but I have seen ammo from one or two small manufacturers offered in calibers such as .40 S&W and .357 Magnum with the +P designation. Since SAAMI does not specify +P ratings for these cartridges there are only two possible explanations. Either the ammo is loaded to higher pressures than SAAMI deems safe or the +P designation is just marketing hype. Be aware, all comments in this article regarding the safety of using +P ammunition are related to SAAMI-sanctioned +P loads only.

Perhaps the careless use of the +P designation contributes to the caution on the part of some firearms manufacturers. Some manufacturers make vague statements in their owner’s manuals regarding +P ammo that I feel adds to consumers’ confusion. For example, some manufacturers of 1911s state, without explanation, that +P .45 ACP ammo is not recommended for use in short-barreled models. This is not due to any concern over chamber pressures. All modern 1911s in proper working order will safely handle +P pressures. The concern is the increased slide velocity produced by the hotter ammo, which affects the functional reliability of the handgun. These short-barreled variants of the 1911 are sometimes finicky, and a recoil spring tensioned for a particular power level of ammo helps to ensure complete reliability. Loads beyond this power level are not only more prone to jam, the added recoil causes more stress on the frame.

Another area of concern for some shooters is with the .38 Special +P loads and small-framed double-action revolvers. These little snubnose .38s have long been popular due to their light weight and concealability but are necessarily not as strong as beefier models. This is especially true of older handguns that may not have the quality of steel available today. I do not know of any current models in production that are not OK’d by the manufacturer for use with +P ammunition, and frankly, if I did I wouldn’t fire the thing with any ammo. As stated earlier, SAAMI-specified +P is simply a modern standard for maximum pressure in these veteran cartridges, so if a newly manufactured handgun will not handle these pressures, I want no part of it.

I would be remiss not to discuss another P rating: +P+. This designates that the cartridge is loaded above SAAMI specs for +P ammo, and most manufacturers restrict sale of these loads to law enforcement, for good reason. These loads are carefully tailored for modern service handguns and may not be safe in all firearms. Thus they are not offered to the general public.

I feel we in the industry should make an effort to demystify +P loads. They are not, as some shooters believe, loaded to borderline pressures. The increase in pressure is moderate. For example, +P .45 ACP ammo is loaded to a maximum pressure of 23,000 psi compared to 21,000 psi for standard loads. Compared to the maximum pressure of other autoloader rounds, these pressures are very mild. The maximum pressure for the .40 S&W, for example, is 35,000 psi.

Any increase in pressure and velocity, however, does put more stress on the firearm. For this reason I use +P .38 Special ammo sparingly in my Chiefs Special, and my 1911s have heavier-than-standard recoil springs. It just makes sense to minimize stress on the firearm as much as possible. I am fond of my handguns and want them to last.

Plus-P ammunition can raise the performance bar for your handgun, but a tradeoff is more recoil and muzzle blast. In some cases it is worth it, such as when a little more velocity is needed to ensure reliable bullet expansion. Velocity increase is modest, however. On average, +P ammo is about 50 to 100 fps faster than standard ammo, sometimes less. In fact, I have encountered some +P loads that were slower than some standard loads available. As always, choose ammo wisely based on your needs.

The shooter considering using +P ammunition should follow the same safety precautions advisable with any ammunition. Make sure the firearm is in excellent condition and is approved by the manufacturer for the ammunition. If it’s an autoloader, make sure the recoil spring is properly tensioned for the ammunition. And make sure the ammunition is from a reliable source and loaded to SAAMI specifications.

  • Harry Ballas

    I recently purchased some Magsafe .38 Special +P+ Max loads for my S+W 642 Airweight Centennial. I thought I was buying +P loads, but when they arrived they were marked +P+ with around 1,600 Muzzle velocity and 404 Ft. lbs. I spoke with my local gun guy and he said maybe not to use them in the 642. I contacted Magsafe and talked to Joe Vega, who stated he shoots it all the time out of those guns. I contacted S+W who stated clearly that the 642 is only +P rated and the +P+ should not be used. What is the opinion here? Any experience with Magsafe and alloy frame Smiths?

    • seriously

      seriously? the manufacturer told you not to use them and you’re still considering it? Call Darwin.

      • Joe

        Gentlemen and ladies, +p ammunition is loaded to only 10% -15% more pressure than standard +p+ adding another 5-8% on top of that. Nothing to sneeze at but a marginal difference at best. All modern firearms are tested and designed to be able to withstand far higher pressures, sometimes even double, atleast a few times to prevent or reduce the chance of catastrophic failure, back over 100 years ago john brownings famous 1911 he boasted about its ability to withstand DOUBLE the pressure of a normal 45 acp round.

      • woodcutterron

        Actually manufacturers are often the best source for bogus information. For example, if you buy an Eveready flashlight. they will tell you to ONLY use Eveready batteries in it. Sorry . . .but I’ll risk a Duracell in that light.

        For folks who havea little knowledge, a change in recoil springs is likely all that will be needed in a given firearm. That being said, particularly with smaller, lighter semi autos, switching to a spring that functions reliably and prevents a lot a slide slam might not function reliably with “normal” ammunition.

        That also being said, most folks using =p= stuff won’t be ding it regularly. And any firearm should be able to withstand a few dozen with negligible wear to the firearm, which should allow for function testing and the once-in-a-blue-moon-or-less times when you’ll need it defensively.

  • Holland Folssom

    Is the Springfield XD -9mm sub-compact designed for +P loads?

    H Folsom

    • Dave

      As far as I know, most all of the newer type handguns can handle +P. I do not know for sure what the age cut off is. XD's are one of the best out there and I have shot plenty of +P through mine.

  • Aaron

    Could a military beretta 92FS desert storm handle +P+ ammo or stick with +P?

  • Richard

    What is the standard spring pressure? ( 18.5 Lbs ? ) and if +P acp LOADS are used, what change should I make on the spring. Just not sure on the +P subject for the 45 ACP. 
    To days ammunition manufacturers offer all types of ammunition for the 45 ACP, my question is? with my Model 1911 A1 from Springfield armory what is to be said about 45 ACP +P ammo or any high pressured loads. I’m not sure where I stand using such loads or what change I should make if I use it.
    Totally confused.
    Thank You.

    • Jim Shipman

      Hey Richard, I have a Range Officer and I just bought some +P home defense hollow points. I have the same questions as you. If you find out please email me at: Thanks, Jim

      • richard Lant

        Jim, not a word yet, and the question related to handgun Pressures has me
        some what perplex. When ammo manufactures consider different types of
        ammunition, I should think they would be able to give out information that
        will relate to this. I have found out that with my Springfield model 1911-A1
        a change in springs is in order with different ammo, ( light to heavy ) but to
        what extent? I do not know. Keep in contact if you wish and we will see what
        Good shooting.

  • Martin Naughton

    Is the Sig P226MK25 safe to use +P ammo?

    • Joe

      Yes ive fired lots of +p+ which is even hotter than +p thru my mk25 p226 and it handles them fine.

    • Philip Palmer

      Concur with Joe. One of the stipulations with guns submitted for adoption by the DOD is the ability to fire ammo loaded to submachine gun standards without failure. This came about following the early failures of early Beretta 92Fs that failed during initial testing. The MK25 is quite strong enough.

  • BigDogAM

    I have a Ruger LC9 that is clearly defined in the manual to not use +P ammo. …?? Just a comment

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